Still Water Fly Fishing

Rene Harrop Still Water Fly Fishing

The noticeable quiet of a late summer morning on still water is unlikely to become a routine experience for many who devote the majority of their fishing time to the rivers of Henry’s Fork country. However, most will submit to a welcome change of pace as the season begins its transition into autumn.

While certainly soothing in its own way, the murmur of moving water denotes a quicker pace in the rhythm of water influenced by gravity when applied to the behavior of trout and what is required in their capture on a fly rod. With constant motion attached to all that lives in this environment we can find ourselves motivated by a sense of urgency to make things happen rather quickly in the false sense that what is moving is actually leaving. On still water, it seems different.

Reflected on a liquid mirror, the dual image of land and sky and all else that lies on or close to an undisturbed surface brings a visual calm to the perception of water that seems only able to be moved by the wind. And it is in this morning calm that I begin to understand how those like my friend, Gareth Jones can become as strongly connected to the still water experience as I am to moving water.

From Gareth, I have learned that a lake possesses unseen currents beneath the surface and that underwater organisms such as insects and fish are by necessity, always moving. I know now that finding the correct zone with respect to the depth I am fishing subsurface patterns will improve my success rate. Also explained is that fishing 3 or 4 different flies on a long leader can make more sense than applying a single pattern when probing the depths of lake or pond. Also to be considered is a trout’s reluctance to pursue prey in the direction of a low angled sun. Not learned from Gareth, however, is the ability to repeatedly cast 90 feet of fly line while seated in an anchored boat – the guy is that strong – But his ability is only half of it. Using and casting with the correct fly fishing tackle is the other half, you try punching a 4wt out over 90feet in consecutive casts throughout the day and you’ll know about it!

While I do not necessarily find dry fly fishing on still water to be more satisfying than the sudden weight of an unseen, subsurface take, I do confess to appreciating the visual excitement of fishing to an ever moving surface feeder.
Rene Harrop Still Water Fly Fishing
Late summer is prime time for hatches of Callibaetis and Trico mayflies on many of our local lakes and reservoirs. Damsel flies and meaty terrestrials like hoppers, beetles, and winged ants also become active and available in this time frame, and this combined menu can bring the eyes of hungry and opportunistic trout toward the surface.

In calm conditions, the location of a rising trout in still water is often determined by sound as much as sight. The audible gulp as an insect is taken from the surface is a still water feature that relates to quiet, although calm is not always part of the package.

Perhaps due to a sensitivity to overhead danger from predators, still water trout usually display a reluctance to linger near the surface following a rise to a floating food source. And because they quickly disappear from sight and normally obey no defined feeding path, much guesswork is involved with regard to where the next rise will appear. In this situation, relaxed, efficient casting can give way to frantic flailing as a target fish takes a natural only a foot from your offering or turns to feed in a direction different from your hopeful guess. The real chaos occurs when you become surrounded by un-patterned feeding and try to change the direction of the cast in mid-stroke. Maintaining discipline and composure may be the most difficult aspect of this type of lake fishing, and a take is nearly always hard earned.

Rene Harrop Still Water Fly Fishing
Like river fish, still water trout will often cruise the shoreline in search of what is often a random assortment of aquatic and terrestrial food items. Because water is typically more shallow along the edges a longer cast is often needed to avoid spooking trout that are more comfortable in greater depth. A more linear feeding path helps to simplify the task of getting the fly in front of the always moving target but careful calculation must be applied to placing it at a point that matches the feeding pace. Efficiency is paramount when fishing to a traveling fish that may allow only one or two casts before moving out of range.
In the right light conditions, subsurface feeders can also be spotted as they prowl the edges for nymphs and other underwater life forms. Sight fishing on still water with weighted fly patterns is especially exciting when the size of the objective is known and the reward of a perfect cast is as visual as the rise to a dry fly.

Rene Harrop Still Water Fly Fishing
As one whose experience and expertise lies mainly in the details of fishing moving water, I have only respect and gratitude for those still water specialists like Gareth Jones who has taught me so much. This particularly applies to those times when their lessons result in a special catch that would not happen otherwise. Some of my most memorable trout in recent years have come while applying those shared techniques on local lakes like Henry’s and Sheridan. Hebgen Lake and Island Park Reservoir are also productive and enjoyable still waters as are numerous smaller lakes in the higher elevations of this region west of Yellowstone.

While the Henry’s Fork and, to a lesser extent, other rivers continue to own the majority of my heart, there will always be room for those quiet mornings on still water which, ultimately, are not so different after all.

Rene Harrop Still Water Fly Fishing

Airflo Super Stik Fly Rod Review

Airflo Super Stik Fly Rod Review

Trout and Salmon magazine review – 9′ 6″ #7/8 Airflo Super Stik fly rod!

It is very hard to find anything wrong this three-piece fly rod. It offers a significant step up in ability over the less-expensive rods. It has a middle-to-tip action – perhaps a bit more tip than middle, and the looks are just superb – featuring a bright white, modern logo.

Excellent with the 7wt Rio Perception fly line, the Airflo Super Stik was very capable with the Di 5 sinking fly line, hauling nicely – perhaps the Sonik and Aleka have a little more spine for pulling fast-sinking lines but this is forgiving on timing, offering lots of feel in the hand. It picks up line easily and casts effortlessly. You can push it and cast a long way. A friendly, genuine reservoir all-rounder for both bank and boat fishing!

Trout and Salmon – Conclusion

With 20 rods in this fly rod review, it was easy to identify the many differences in action and performance. Some performed well in certain disciplines, while others showed true all-round potential with both floating and sinking fly lines.

Our favourites were the Daiwa Lexa at £235, the Hardy Jet at £379 and the Airflo Super Stik at £129.99. All available from

The Daiwa Lexa is an exceptional rod for the money and performed better than any other. It was instantly easy to cast, forgiving and just a dream to use with all lines. It was difficult to choose between the Hardy Jet and the Lexa – they were closely matched in terms of performance and action. The Jet delivered all lines with precision, felt balanced in the hand and was extremely trusting. It’s a superb all-rounderfor fishing from the bank or boat, given it’s pedegree will no doubt prove very popular among ordinary fishers and those who fish competitions.

The Airflo Super Stik is a great rod at a mere £129.99 – which is why it makes our top three placings, it’s also a whole £249 cheaper than the Jet. It is a genuine all-rounder that has such feel that is a pleasure to cast. It is great for distance casting even though it’s rated a 7/8 it was perfectly suited to the lighter floater and dry-fly fishing, or pulling teams of flies on a heavy sinker. Excellent value for money.

Click here to buy the Airflo Super Stik

Click here to buy the Airflo Super Stik

Airflo Streamtec Nantec 10 #3/4 Rod Review

airflo streamtec nan-tec

‘Trout and Salmon Recommended!’

Having now spent an entire season using this rod on my local Welsh rivers and somehow managing to land a fair few trout and grayling on it, I now feel qualified enough to give a proper review on this rod… not one based on a five minute session using  the casting pool out in front of the office!

This particular model has been designed for modern nymphing techniques, primarily with a French leader, an indicator or a heavy bugging set up. The action is perfect… parabolic enough to flick a French leader with microscopic nymphs right across the river, but still able to pitch out a team of heavy 4mm tungsten beaded jigs or czech nymphs at short range into a heavy flow.

It also excels at playing fish as it flexes from tip to butt under load, so you have no worries about hook pulls in fast water or breaking off on light tippets. It’s a really fun fishing rod to use, you do get a great fight off almost anything half decent due to the soft playing action. However the power is there when you really need it , I managed to land a cracking wild brownie of 3.5 lb in a really heavy flow without breaking into too much of a sweat!

Although it’s a nymphing rod I’ve also used it with a 3 weight line casting dries at long range on big flats.  It’s a very accurate caster for a 10’ footer and capable of producing some really sweet tight loops. When you are up to your armpits in the drink that extra length does really help, allowing me to keep the back cast high off the water and above the surrounding nettles.

What amazes me is the performance for the price. The ultimate river rod in my opinion was always the Sage SLT, a crisp, accurate casting rod which is light in the hand and performs with excellence. The Streamtec doesn’t have the hefty price tag of the SLT, but upon comparison in fishing situations there is hardly a difference other than it’s weight! The finish is great and well thought out, the matte non-flash blank and understated wood effect reel seat giving it a classy feel. The cork handle is also top notch for a rod in this price bracket… its only £109.99 !

This rod was so good I also invested in the 7’6 #3/4 model.  This has also been a real peach of a rod. It’s the perfect toy for tiny brooks and mountain streams, being really soft, but still extremely responsive.  It’s been fantastic fun tussling with 8 inch browns which do punch well above their weight on this little gem.

There are some competitor’s rods on the market for more than twice the price; in my eyes they are no better both in terms of finish and performance… all I can say is get one (or two!)  of these for much  less than the same money.  They are an essential purchase for the modern river angler, along with the new Super-Dri fly lines!

View the Airflo Streamtec Fly Rod range from Fishtec

Airflo Airtec Switch Rods – Reviewed


As being part of the Airflo team I have the pleasure of being privy to new products before they are introduced to the general fishing public. One in particular that caught my eye was the introduction of the new range of Airflo Switch Fly Rods. I have had the pleasure of using many switch rods in the past for various fishing situations and was keen to see what the Airtec’s had to offer.

There’s been a lot of buzz in the past couple of years about switch rods – lightweight double-handed rods in the 10 to 12 foot range that are designed for both two-handed spey casting and single hand overhead casting. Traditionally these rods have been designed for fishing rivers for Salmon, steelhead and sea trout, of late, their ability has been rendered and switch rods have been set-up on smallwaters all around the UK.

Mainly, Im a river fisherman, but growing up in south Wales I’ve been lucky enough to fish many hill lakes and reservoirs where these switch rods would came in handy. When the first batch of Airflo Airtec Switch rods came into stock, I could not wait to get my hands on the 11′ 3″ 6# switch.

I had plans of teaming the rod with an Airflo Speydicator #6, to give that extra bit of distance on a river that averages 20 yards in width. You’d normally struggle to hit some of the spots using a traditional single handed rod because of the lack of back cast. With some knowledge on double handed rods I felt fairly competent with my roll casting, so pulled off some line and gave it a whirl. After just 30 minutes of casting and getting used to the rod and line combination, I was having some incredible fun and was lucky enough to hook into a decent trout from one of my favorite pools.

Having used it for a full day on the river and thoroughly enjoying my time with it, I decided to take it with me on my next lake trip. Many of the lakes I fish have a difficult back cast and often anglers will sacrifice distance because they struggle to get the best back cast. I decided to team up my 11’ 3” #6 Airflo Airtec Switch rod with one of my 7# Airflo 40+ fly line. Me and a colleague Ceri Thomas took a trip to one of our local reservoirs and when I pulled out the switch rod, he was skeptical to say the least.

I stripped out my 40+ and with a single false cast to get the 35ft head out I powered out more or less the whole fly line! Ceri’s skeptism changed slightly into awe. I knew from previous experience with these rods that they can really power out a line, and partnered with the 40+ you’ll be casting to distances only ever dreamed of. I handed Ceri the rod and he used it for the rest of the session. Not only does it handle the overhead cast well but also the switch style butt, you can create easy roll cast’s with maximum distance.

Even though the switch rods were created mainly for salmon, steelhead and sea trout I have used this across the board for most fly-fishing situations and am very impressed with how it handles. I’ve got some highland lake fishing planned for late spring, so will get another review on the site when I get chance.

In my opinion the next few years we will see an increase in the amount of anglers that will be using the switch rods. This rod does not only appeal to the river fisherman but to the whole fly fishing world as it offers diversity in it’s casting ability. I must say that these fishing rods take a lot of getting used to, if you do happen to purchase one and you’re struggling to get to grips with it, I’d recommend getting some casting tuition from a local instructor, im sure you’ll reap the rewards!

Daiwa NewEra Fly Rods Explained

We’ve heard over the last day or so that the Daiwa NewEra Fly Rod range have rolled off the production line, from their home in Scotland, and are now on their way to shops all around the UK. As Daiwa’s game angling consultant, Hywel Morgan had his keen eye for fly rod technology and design cast over the length development and production of these rods, testing them on every available fishing day. Right where they should be tested …on the water! Hywel promises these rods are worth the wait!

What’s so special about the Daiwa NewEra fly fishing rod range? Daiwa have integrated X45 Carbon to the construction of their blanks, A three layer laminated construction which give you precision, power and performance. The three layers the rod is constructed from help counteract crushing, bending and twisting, helping you deliver your fly exactly where you want it as easily as possible.

The Daiwa NewEra Trout Rod range consists of 8 separate models from a 9′ 5# river rod through to a 11’3″ 7/8# top of the water rod. This impressive range of rods feature everything an angler could look for with dedicated river, small-water, bank and boat fishing rods.

The Daiwa range starts with the 9ft 5 weight – the ideal river fishing rod. Featuring a light and extremely sensitive tip, this fly rod can throw dries at range, fish wet flies down and across and make the most of short range nymphing when trout or grayling are close to the bottom and heavy flies are needed to get down.

All your small still water boxes will be ticked with the 9ft 6 weight NewEra, the perfect rod for stalking with light tippet, fishing dries around reeds or throwing the occasional lure on a sinking line.

For the bank angler there are three rods in the range that may take your fancy, the 9ft 6inch 6 weight, a dry fly or light nymph anglers dream. The 9ft 6inch 7 weight which is the go to bank rod in the range. Then comes the 9ft 6inch 8 weight, great for throwing heavy sinking lines, shooting heads or the occasional trip salmon fishing.

The boat range feature three highly favourable rods, the 10ft 7weight which again is the go to boat fishing rod, 10ft 8 weight when you need that extra bit of power for casting large flies or heavy sinking lines all day long and the 11ft 3inch 7/8 weight which not only doubles up as a great switch rod, but is ideal for top of the water fishing for brown trout too.

Last in the Daiwa Range is the selection of salmon fishing rods, a range of 5 rods starting with a 11ft 3inch 7/8weight switch rod all the way up to 15ft 11wt.

Cat Cubie Casts a Fly Rod

Cat Cubie, Scottish television weather presenter currently working for BBC Scotland opens the official Salmon fishing Season at Dunkeld, Scotland January 15th.

Along side guest presenting and writing for a number of different broadcasters, ‘Cubie’ hosts her own show on Real Radio and writes a weekly column in the Evening Express. As an experienced event host and compere, Cat accepted the invitation to cast the first fly rod on the Tay this season. The symbolic opening ceremony is the start of the Salmon Fishing Season on the Tay where hundreds of anglers meet in anticipation of the first Salmon of the year .

When Cat’s not behind the camera or microphone she loves to play in the Scottish Highlands – Skiing and walking along some of the most beautiful scenic paths and ridges. The Scottish Weather woman also enjoys heading to warmer climes to scuba dive or trying her hand at more unusual hobbies like circus skills and fly fishing, among other outdoor activities.

Reports all around the river are showing  that opening day on the Tay was worth braving the cold. A number of fish were caught on a range of fishing methods; being so early in the season anglers who fished lures and spinners seen best results.

Below is a perfect example of a 21lb Tay Springer, caught by Gordon Nicoll.Salmon Tay Opening Day


Choosing the Right Fly Rod

We believe that selecting the right fly fishing rod is one of the most important decisions an angler has to make – especially one new to fly fishing. A correctly chosen fishing rod will become a lifetime friend and fishing companion, the incorrect choice will leave you frustrated and ready to take up another hobby!

No one fly fishing rod can do it all; in fact, each rod is designed for the specific purpose and line weight. Before choosing a fly rod you must ask yourself three questions.

  • Where will you be using the rod (rivers, streams, lakes, or saltwater)?
  • What species do you intend to pursue (trout, salmon, pike, or saltwater species like bonefish, permit and tarpon)?
  • Will you be doing a lot of travelling with fishing?

Different fishing rod lengths and actions are used in different fishing situations. Short light weight rods (7ft – 8ft 6in,) taking light weight lines AFTM 3 – 5, are used for dry fly and nymph fishing on small to medium rivers and stillwaters where delicate presentation is required at short range.

Longer single hand rods (9ft-11ft), taking heavier line weights AFTM 6 – 9, are used for bank and boat fishing on larger stillwaters where longer casting is sometimes required.

Large double hand salmon rods (12ft – 16ft) will give you line control for casting long distances on the bigger salmon rivers.

Through or Slow action fishing rods flex from the tip right through to the butt. Slow action fly rods do not generate high line speeds due to their flexibility, and are designed for anglers who need to make short and very accurate and gentle casts. As such, slow action fly rods are ideal for fly-fishing smaller rivers, streams and other areas that require anglers to make short and accurate casts. Additionally, slow action fly fishing rods excel in protecting light tippets.

Medium or Middle to Tip action rods are probably the most common action used and are the workhorses of the fly fishing rod world. They are by far the most popular fly rods on the market today. Medium action fly rods are also the most versatile of fly rods. They can make longer casts quite adequately, especially in the hands of a good caster while being forgiving to the beginner. A great all round action suitable for a range of different fishing situation.

Tip or Fast action fly rods tend to be stiff, only flexing in the tip section. This generates high line speeds and tight loops for extreme distance and greater accuracy. Due to the high line speed generated by fast action fly rods, casting in windy conditions is much easier – especially if used in conjunction with advanced casting techniques that help reduce some of the effect of wind resistance.

The material from which a rod is made plays an important role in determining its performance, durability, weight and – finally – price. Graphite (Carbon) is the most commonly used material today. High modulus Graphite is extremely strong and light, which gives it the ability to recover to its original straight position with very little vibration. This improves your casting distance and accuracy. Usually the better quality the graphite – the higher the price.

The recent advances in rod building materials have made multi section rods virtually identical to two-piece models. In short, a multi-section fishing rod now offers the fly fisherman a much higher level of convenience, and is a boon to those who travel with their fly fishing tackle; at little or no cost to the fishing rod’s performance or weight.

Almost exclusively, rod handles are made from cork. The higher the grade of cork used, the longer the handle will last. The two main shapes of fly rod handle are Half Wells ( usually used on lighter rods 9ft AFTM 6 and below), and Full Wells (this type of handle gives a better grip and used on longer rods casting heavier AFTM 7,8 & 9 lines)

Fighting butts are an extensions of cork or rubber at the base of the rod, behind the reel seat. Typically found on heavier fishing rods, (7 weight and above), they’re designed for prolonged battles with large, powerful fish. A fighting but provides a large diameter area to firmly place the rod against your body while fighting a fish.

This depends; there are a number of perfectly good rods on the market priced between £50 – £100. There are big differences between the cheaper and expensive rods, such as quality of fittings and finish. An expensive fishing rod will almost always be lighter, more responsive and have a quicker recovery speed for generating tighter loops for superior casts. Our advice is to never hesitate to spend as much as you can reasonably afford, but try not to go over the top, especially when starting out in the sport. Why not contact one of our expert advisors for free advise on choosing the right model?

Misty morning fly fishing for Pike

Let me set the scene to start with. Imagine leaving the house before 7am in pitch darkness, the air filled with dense fog and a heavy frost on the ground. You plan to fish a venue that you have never fished before but have instructions from a friend so you are confident you know roughly where you are going. Arriving at your destination after a slower paced drive than normal you are greeted by two young deer prancing across the road. You park up, set your fly tackle up and start following the directions. When you arrive near the water the water level is very high, well above the bank and in the fields, there are trees in the water, the mist is so dense you cannot make out much of anything, there is an eerie silence about the place and then it happens, the first fish of the day is spooked and all of your senses hone in, your heart gives a few thumps and your inner fish bum instinct kicks in.

Ok, I realise that is a departure from my normal writing style but that morning was magical, it was so wonderfully eerie, hopefully the following pictures will help convey that.

The first spooked fish was a smally, nothing to worry about but a great sign all the same. There were a few fish crashing about on the surface, difficult to say if they were pike or not as there’s a few other inhabitants in this particular water. One thing I can say for certain is that the water was freezing! I started off covering the water with a white and chartreuse split bunny pattern with no success. After a short time Craig joined me and we meticulously fished the bay. Nothing seemed to be doing, a few fly changes, a lot of areas covered and nothing. It took until about midday before we came across a fish when Craig hooked into a nice Jack that fell to a yellow deceiver. Here’s a short video of the fish, be sure to play it in HD.

That was Craig 1-0 up and something had to be done about that! Craig and I were working in opposite directions along the bank away from each other and not long after I had one have a couple grabs at my fly but it didn’t stick, got the adrenalin rushing again though! Presumably a Jack that missed the hook, could even have been a perch for all I know.

After covering a bit more water, I finally hooked into a spritely jack that gave a good account of itself. It was a white bunny pattern with a burnt orangey/browny/reddy marabou collar. Result! Fish on the bank and the score level at one a piece.

We decided to head back to the cars not long after this but on the way back Craig decided to try and outdo the 1-1 scoreline and upped the anti to 1.1-1. He found a piece of a pike! The full lower jaw was found in two pieces, a seriously impressive set of gnashers.

And that raps up this weekend’s fishing excitement. It was great to finally fish this water, one I’ve been looking at for a while and one that definitely warrants some time being spent on it. Hard to beat that for quality fly fishing after wild species in the winter outside the trout season! The weather is starting to get really cold though so it might soon be time to switch over to chasing Grayling instead.

Grafham Home Fly Fishing International

My 11th Home International cap took me to my local water Grafham. This time of year, in fact all year round, Grafham is well known for its superb quality grown on fish. In recent years even more so.

Killer shrimp

A new food source has appeared in the water in the last 2 years known as the killer shrimp which tend to hug the closest of margins. These feeders were to play a major part in Englands assault on the gold medal. They come from about a sz14 hook to the largest of grub hooks on a sz 8. Their movement is eratic so a mix of figure of eight retrieves with the odd twitch is what is needed.

Practice sessions

Team England had 3 full days practice before the match day. The lake was split into sections and each England pairing given an allotted area for each half of the day. It was important to find the areas with fish and those with no fish. On my first morning session I took 11 fish with just 1 under 3lb. Fish up to 5lb came to claret dries, Cruncher Boobies, Crunchers and the Candy Blob. The afternoon session yielded no fish which was just as important as catching the 11. The 2nd day I was allotted the middle of the lake which is where I love to be… In 5 hours I didn’t see any signs of a fish!

Grafham Middle

I have won numerous competitions on Grafham, including the Bob Church Classic twice and have drove away in a brand new RX300 Lexus after winning the Lexus European Open all through the middle of the lake. Due to the arrival of the killer shrimp, there is so much food in the margins I fear for the middle fishing for which Grafham is well known. But hey, the fish are still there, seem to be getting bigger quicker and can now be reached by the many bank anglers now returning to its shores.

The Flies

Team England had 10 flies on a short list, 5 of which came from Iain Barr World Champions range. It was a mix of lures, nymphs and dries. My new top selling Candy Blob, new Cut Throat Crunchers and new Killer shrimp patterns were the top performers along with a Two Tone FAB.

Fishing Tackle

Setting up my Enigma MkIII #8 fly rod, I was able to cast the full length of the fly line giving me the option to fish faster, keeping the flies near the surface, or fish slower dropping my flies through the layers finding the feeding depth of the fish. It is crucial to have a fishing rod that can cope with the sudden runs and lunges from the magnificent Grafham fish, but also to take advantage when the fish gives signs of  letting up!

Tactical Drifting

As a team we knew it was imperative to keep fishing fresh water as especially many of the better fish we were catching were just in a few feet of water.  With boats ‘turning’ in the shallow water we looked for fresh drifts every time we drifted to the shore ensuring we hadn’t followed where a boat had just turned.

Match Day

I had decided that I was heading out on a floating line, my Candy Blob on the point, Tangering Diawl Bach above it, Red Holo DB next and my new Cut Throat Cruncher on top dropper. A subtle difference from the other teams was for team England to fish 5foot of 15lb of G3 Fluorocarbon from the floating line then 7 foot of 8 or 10lb G3 to the first dropper. This allowed the flies to drop deeper if needed in the sun and more importantly kept the flies away from our fly lines which I have proved in experiments does spook the fish if pulled under by the weight of the flies.

I drew Mark Jones from Wales who fished a Di5 most of the day pulling lures. I did the absolute opposite with my blob and nymphs static on a floating line.

He drew first blood on the booby then I kicked in with a near 5lb Rainbow, best fish of the match, then 3 quick fire rapid fish upto 3.5lb. To my amazement he took me away into deep water when the clock struck 12:00

Almost 2 hours of nothing in his area of choice when I took 2 quick fish including my Grafham personal best of 7lb, Rainbow, on the static Candy Blob. I returned to D buoy dam area and anglers who had 1 or 2 when I left had 9s and 11s! I was now playing catch up.

I came in with 16 only to be pipped by Dave Hoppe of Wales for top individual spot who fished incredibly well to come in with 18 in the same area, top angling! England had record breaking margins to bring in the Gold, beating Scotland by 61lb, Wales in 3rd by over 83lb and Ireland in 4th by over 150lb.

Top English Rod